Nano Liposome Synthesis
What is a liposome?
Liposomes are vesicular biocompatible nano- particles formed by one or more lipid bilayer membranes that surround an aqueous core. Scientists recognize their advantages, including:
- Increased efficacy of therapeutic drugs
- Non-toxic & non-immunogenic properties
- Biocompatible & fully biodegradable
- Increased stability for encapsulations
- A reliable carrier of toxic drugs
- Flexibility to achieve desired results
It’s lipid bilayer is constituted of amphiphilic molecules (phospholipids). These molecules generally consist of two hydrophobic fatty acid “tails” and a hydrophilic phosphate group “head”.
Liposome vescicular structure
The amphiphilic structure of liposome particles enables encapsulation of both hydrophilic and hydrophobic pharmaceutical drugs and nutrients. Phospholipids form an insoluble bubble protecting the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) from the harsh environment of the digestive system where it is readily absorbed through the gut wall. From here particles gravitate through the bloodstream toward the site of cell damage, and the phospholipids are stripped away to be used by the body to build new cells. The release of the API happens at this stage to treat the area, which has remained untouched during transit. This makes liposomes a very attractive biological system, widely employed as a drug delivery vehicle .
Highlights of microfluidic technology
Microfluidic encapsulation methods have demonstrated potential for achieving higher control over the physical properties of the final liposome product than conventional batch methods. Typical microfluidics characteristics, such as low Reynolds number and diffusion dominated mass transfer, make it the most viable method for producing lipid-based nanoscale vesicular systems with the potential for clinical application.
Microfluidic hydrodynamic focusing (MHF) technique, developed by Jahn et al. in 2004, presents these typical characteristics of microfluidics. This method relies on the use of microfluidic devices with a cross flow geometry. Typically, a stream of lipid in alcohol solution is forced to flow in the inner channel of the device. The lipid stream is intersected and sheathed by two lateral (or coaxial) streams of a water phase (distilled water or aqueous buffers). In this way, the lipid containing stream is hydrodynamically focused into a narrow sheet. During this process the alcohol diffusion triggers the formation of liposomes by a mechanism described as “self-assembly”. Liposome particle size can be controlled by changing the flow rate ratio (FRR) of the phases mixed.
Liposome particles precipitating at the interface between the two phases
Benefits of microfluidic liposome synthesis
- Microfluidic techniques offer a solution for synthesis of precise, small and uniform liposomes.
- Distinctive advantages of microfluidics, such as laminar flow and flow rate control, help to reproduce liposome particles with desired characteristics.
- As the entire production is controlled by the user, liposome synthesis certifies the purity of final product.
- Continuous laminar flow microfluidic technology ensures almost 100% liposome self-assembly, reducing wastage and making liposome synthesis a cost-effective option. Plus, the purity of the final product assures its shelf-life exceeds over 2 weeks.
- Research results and synthesis conditions can be easily applied for automation, which opens up possibilities for larger-scale production.
Systems for liposome synthesis and drug encapsulation
- High product yield
- Precise particle reproducibility
- High chemical resistance
- Highly monodispersed liposomes particles ranging from 50 nm to 500 nm
- High-throughput scalability, up to 1L per day (Telos Large Scale Micro Droplet System)
- Reduce reagent consumption
- Ability to tune the particle size
Dolomite’s Liposome Systems offer a solution for nanoliposome synthesis.
Dolomite’s modular liposome systems apply microfluidic hydrodynamic focusing (MHF) approach for the synthesis of small (from 50 to 500 nm) liposome vesicles. The interest in synthetic methods of liposome production using microfluidic techniques is ever increasing. The vesicular structure of liposome particles enables encapsulation of both hydrophilic and hydrophobic pharmaceutical drugs and nutrients.
Dolomite nonoliposome system has been specifically designed for the continuous formation of liposome nanoparticles, and offers consistent performance, particle reproducibility, long life, and ease of use. In addition, its modularity provides users with a very cost-effective scale up. Specific features users can expect include: