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home applications application notes
 

Application notes and white papers

Dolomite is pushing the boundaries of microfluidic technology through constant development of both products and technologies.

Please find below a list of our latest application notes:

 Hydrogels

agarose bead synthesis

Agarose Bead Synthesis

This application note describes the generation of agarose droplets at elevated temperature and subsequent cooling to form solid microparticles. The highest droplet generate rate is 2800 droplets per second corresponding to a droplet diameter of ~ 60 µm. The system is based around a standard hydrophobic droplet junction chip.

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Colorimetric Estimation Gelatin Microparticles

Colorimetric Estimation of Protein Content in Gelatin Microparticles

This application note demonstrates a colorimetric method to quantify protein content inside micrometer sized gelatin hydrogel particles. Dolomite's Droplet System is used to manufacture the microstructured gelatin carriers used in this study. The pressure based pumping enabled by the P-Pump is critical to allow generation of highly monodisperse droplet sizes.

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 Cell encapsulation

Cells in double emulsions for FACS sorting

Cells in double emulsions for FACS sorting

In this application note, we investigate a two-chip system for making 30µm double emulsion droplets, containing individual cells, suitable for FACS sorting. The system used comprises of Dolomite's Custom Chips, P-Pumps, Flow Sensors, Connectors, Tubing and High-Speed Camera and Microscope System.

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Capturing single cells in droplets using density media

Capturing single cells in picoliter droplet reactors

In order to minimise droplets with multiple cells, the cell suspension is typically diluted so that only 1 in 10 droplets contains a cell. However, cells gradually sediment out of suspension, causing the number of cells per droplet to rise, and also causing clogging in the tubing, and between the tubing and the chip. This application note demonstrates the use of density media to make the cells approximately neutrally buoyant, minimising sedimentation, and maintaining an even rate of cells per droplet.

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CHO Cell Encapsulation

CHO Cell Encapsulation & Incubation in Gelatin Particles

Cell encapsulation in picoliter volume droplets is demonstrated in this application note using a Dolomite Droplet System. Thereafter, the viability of the encapsulated cells is assessed by incubating and monitoring cell growth. The cells are shown to survive the encapsulation process well, with no visible adverse effect suggesting no material incompatibility.

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 Nanoparticles

agarose bead synthesis

Continuous Microfluidic Synthesis of PLGA Nanoparticles

This application note reports on the production of biocompatible PLGA polymer nanoparticles (NP) for pharmaceutical applications. Two distinct formulations are used differing in the physico-chemical process of nanoparticle formation and growth modes. Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) is used to characterize the final product.

This note demonstrates the use of Dolomite’s Micromixer System for the production of PLGA nanoparticles.

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 Droplets-on-demand

 Droplet Splitting

Droplet on Demand Generation & Droplet Splitting

The ability to divide droplets is a necessary operation for the execution of assays and the production of sample replicates. The ability to create user-defined droplet libraries on demand is therefore useful. Droplet splitting is a significant feature of Mitos Dropix®, and allows aliquoting picoliter volumes from a nanoliter plug. Mitos Dropix® produces nanoliter volume droplets and when coupled with flow focussing technology, works as a droplet splitter.

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Droplet on Demand Generation

Mitos Dropix® Droplet Merging System: Droplet on Demand Generation and Pairwise Merging

This application note demonstrates the ability of the Mitos Dropix® Droplet Merging System to reproducibly generate and subsequently merge droplets from tens to hundreds of nanolitres with a wide range of volume ratios.

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Mitos Dropix Droplet Generation System

Mitos Dropix Droplet Generation System: Demonstration of Droplet-on-Demand Sequencing

Mitos Dropix technology now introduces liquid sampling and processing over a very wide 10 nL – 50 μL volume range utilizing droplet technology. Droplet-on-demand sequencing and droplet library generation is demonstrated with the Mitos Dropix® Droplet Generation System in this application note.

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Droplet-on-Demand Platform

Droplet-on-Demand Platform for Biochemical Screening & Drug Discovery

This poster demonstrates droplet on demand applications towards study of biological entities encapsulated in nanoliter droplets using Mitos Dropix®. Interfacing a droplet on demand platform with microfluidic chips allows for merging and dilution of droplets. This feature is applied to encapsulate yeast cells (S. cerevisiae) and multicellular organisms (C. elegans).

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 Double emulsions

Double Emulsion Production

Dolomite's Double Emulsion System: Water in Mineral Oil in Water (W-O-W) Double Emulsion Production using SDS, PGPR and Tween® 80 as Emulsifiers

This application note reports on the production of monodisperse double emulsion droplets produced in a single step using a microfluidic approach. Key applications include drug delivery and enzyme immobilization, taste masking food products, key ingredient delivery vehicle for cosmetics, in-vitro encapsulation, flow cytometry and micro shells as delivery vehicles. System used: Dolomite's Double Emulsion System

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Generation of double encapsulated emulsion

Generation of double encapsulated emulsion

Double emulsions have potential uses in the pharmaceutical and food industries for controlled release of chemicals trapped in the inner droplet. To enable the creation of double encapsulated emulsions, two Droplet Chips, one with hydrophobic coating and one with hydrophilic coating were connected in a chip holder and stable flow controlled through Dolomite Pressure Pumps.

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 Droplet production

 Mineral Oil Emulsion Production

2 – 10 µm Diameter Water Droplets in Mineral Oil Emulsion Production

The Small Droplet System setup is described in detail to illustrate the assembly of components along with the fluidic setup. The system is used in a test case to generate water droplets in mineral oil, an organic fluid. By setting the pressures on the P-pumps, stable and monodisperse droplets are found to be produced over a wide range of sizes.

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parallelized droplet production

Telos: High-throughput parallelized droplet production

This application note describes the operating procedure and performance of the Telos® System for the production of monodisperse water-in-oil emulsions using 35 droplet junctions in parallel. This ground-breaking, modular concept combines the unrivalled size distribution control of microfluidics with production rates comparable to those achieved by traditional batch methods.

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P-Pump Droplet Monodispersity

Mitos P-Pump Droplet Monodispersity

The unique pulseless pressure driven pumping technology of the  Mitos P-Pump offers the best solution for droplet formation applications providing a coefficient of variation in the droplet diameter of less than 0.6%.

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Characterisation of Droplet Junction Chip with hexadecane and water

Characterisation of Droplet Junction Chip with hexadecane and water

This application note describes how Dolomite's Droplet Junction Chip can be used to generate water droplets in a hexadecane oil carrier stream. By controlling the pressure of the oil and water input reservoir, different flow regimes and droplet sizes were observed.

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parallel droplet generation

Parallel Droplet Generation

This application note describes the performance of a reliable and versatile high throughput system which features Dolomite's innovative 6-Junction Droplet Chip with 6 individual flow-focussing junctions and is capable of consistently producing up to 600ml of emulsion over a 24-hour period as well as highly monodispersed droplets ranging from 20µm to 60µm in diameter.

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 Micromixing

Surfactant stabilized droplets (100 µm large) collected in a well plate at various magnifications

Introduction to Mixing and Droplet Production in Microfluidics using Dolomite's Educational Microfluidic System

This application note introduces researchers to fundamental fluid operations in microfluidics using Dolomite's Educational Microfluidic System. It aims to provide the reader with the concepts, methods and data they need to grasp situations which typically arise in microfluidic systems, including micromixing and droplet production.

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Mixing Time of Sodium Hydroxide and Phenolphthalein

Quantifying μ-Scale Mixing Time of Sodium Hydroxide and Phenolphthalein Using Dolomite's Micromixer System

This application note evaluates mixing using a rapid chemical reaction causing a colour change as the indicator of mixing. The Mitos Micromixer System is ideal for applications such as reaction kinetics, sample dilution, improved reaction selectivity, rapid crystallisation and nanoparticle synthesis, as well as biological procedures such as cell activation, enzyme reactions, immunoassays, DNA hybridization and protein folding.

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 Micro bubble and foam generation

Gas Bubble Generation

Gas Bubble Generation in Water using Dolomite's Small Droplet System

This application note describes a hydrodynamic flow-focussing based system for the monodisperse formation of nitrogen bubbles using the Small Quartz Droplet Chip  based Small Droplet System. Applications range from R&D, to medical diagnostics, to material science and petrochemicals.

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Formation of monodispersed microbubbles

Formation of monodispersed microbubbles

Microfluidic chips enable the production of foams with monodispersed gas bubbles. Monodispersed foams have consistent bubble size and more consistent characteristics.

This application note describes how the Mitos P-Pump can be used in combination with the Droplet Junction Chip to produce monodispersed gas bubbles.

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 Gas Chromatography

gas chromatography

Miniaturisation of Gas Chromatography equipment

This application note describes a glass Gas Chromatography Chip fabricated by Dolomite. The chip has a 300µm thick layer and is fabricated with isotropic etched channels, which effectively replace the capillary and spindle structure which is characteristic of standard GC columns.

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 White papers

multiflux

Multiflux™ - reliable multi-way fluidic connections

This white paper illustrates how Multiflux™ Connectors and Interfaces benefit a number of different applications by creating fast and reliable multi-way fluidic connections between various fluidic modules.

Applications include fluid dispensing robot heads, tube-to-tube connections, valve manifolds and GC chips.

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